"War crimes" trials have continued since the end of World War Two, and show no sign of abating. Since the great International Military Tribunal (IMT) and the subsequent twelve (American) Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT) standards of jurisprudence have not changed either.
At Nuremberg, the vanquished were judged by the victors; there were no neutral judges; and no Allied war-crimes were judged.
Articles ¶19 and ¶121 suspended normal rules of evidence, and permitted hearsay, affidavits from the dead, and judicial notice of "facts of common knowledge" (i.e. the "Holocaust").
Many witnesses and defendants were tortured or blackmailed into giving perjured testimony. The most famous of these was Rudolf Höss, the one-time Commandant of Auschwitz. At the main Nuremberg trial (IMT) he grunted his agreement to his "confession" which was read aloud to him. But, as he later acknowledged, he had signed this statement [in English!] only after being tortured by British interrogators (see: Commandant of Auschwitz, Popular Library, 1961, p.164.). This affidavit claims that "2.5 million" were gassed, plus another "0.5m otherwise executed" at Auschwitz. Although the Polish authorities have generously "rounded-off" Höss's figure to 4m (Auschwitz-Birkenau monument), modern Exterminationists such as Dr. Raul Hilberg put the Auschwitz death-toll at "slightly over one million" (Zündel trial testimony).
In his confessional statement, Höss claimed that the other Nazi death-camps in Poland were "Belzec, Treblinka and Wolzek" (Höss affidavit, 5 April 1946, PS-3868). Yet, Wolzek does not appear on any Polish or German map or gazetteer. (Some language authorities claim that "Wolzek" is the way Poles pronounce "Belzec"; yet Höss already listed that camp.)
Franz Ziereis, the Commandant of Mauthausen, was interrogated on his death-bed, after having been critically wounded "trying to escape." This all-night grilling resulted in his confession that there was a "gas chamber" at Mauthausen (PS-3870, 8 April 1946), yet modern Exterminationists such as Yehuda Bauer tell us (History of the Holocaust, 1982, p.209) that "no gassing took place at Mauthausen."
Even some of the prominent IMT defendants were tortured. Nazi Labor Minister Fritz Sauckel twice asked the court (13 December 1945 and 30 May 1946) to disregard his written confession (PS-3057) since he had only signed it after being threatened with his wife and ten children being turned over to the Soviets.
Nazi propagandist Julius Stretcher was also tortured before his appearance at Nuremberg. An account appears in William P. Varga's biography The Number One Jew-Baiter (1981) and also in Werner Maser's Nuremberg: A Nation on Trial (Scribners, 1979). Maser refers to a handwritten account Streicher made of the torture, which was subsequently reproduced in The Journal of Historical Review (Spring 1984, p.111). When Streicher's attorney tried to raise the matter at the IMT, the tribunal refused to discuss it, and ordered that the attorney's remarks should be stricken from the record.
The "Nazi confessor" Kurt Gerstein was never exhibited in person at the Nuremberg trials because he had conveniently disappeared and was presumed dead. However, thanks to the IMT's [non-]rules of evidence, his "affidavit" was introduced as PS-1553 on 30 January 1946. Even though this "confession" describes impossible visits by Hitler to Lublin, even though he claims that 750 people could be squashed into 25 square meters, and even though he claims to have seen mountains of underwear 40m high – still his craziness is cited by Holocaust academics. When Professor Raul Hilberg was asked on the Toronto witness-stand why he had cited Gerstein as a source at least ten times, he responded that Gerstein was certainly a "mad man" but Hilberg could differentiate between his "mad" and his "sane" fulminations; after all, Hilberg was an Expert®.
Hilberg's 1985 performance did not impress even his own constituency. Prof. Stanley Barrett described Hilberg's testimony as "not too effective." (Is God A Racist? U. of Toronto Press, 1987, p 162.) He was also ridiculed and berated for his ineptness, when he appeared at a Detroit synagogue a few months later. So it was hardly surprising that Hilberg declined to appear at the second Zündel trial in 1988, bleating that he did not wish the defense attorney (Douglas Christie) to focus on "seeming contradictions" in his various statements. Instead, Hilberg conscripted the shabbas goy Prof. Christoper Browning of Tacoma, to take the heat for him at the second go-around in Toronto. Four other Holocaust© Experts® never showed up.
The testimony of "survivors" is notoriously unreliable. According to the Director of Archives at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, Shmuel Krakowski, "more than half of the 20,000 testimonials from Holocaust survivors on record at Yad Vashem are 'unreliable' and have never been used as evidence in Nazi was crimes trials" (Jerusalem Post article reported in Wilmington (DE) Evening Joumal, 27 August 1986, p.A10).
According to Exterminationist expert Gerald Reitlinger, "a certain degree of reserve is necessary in handling [survivor narratives] ...The witnesses ...are [Eastern Jews] who use numerals as oratorical adjectives and whose very names are creations of fantasy" (The Final Solution, Sphere, 1971 p.581).
American writer Hannah Arendt covered the Eichmann trial in Jerusalem for the New York Times and she later wrote that "If Eichmann's name was mentioned at all, it obviously was hearsay ...the testimony of all witnesses who had 'seen him with their own eyes' collapsed the moment a question was addressed to them" (Eichmann in Jerusalem; the Banality of Evil, Penguin, 1978, p.208).
In U.S. deportation/extradition cases, one often finds a traveling-circus of professional Survivors, touring around the country from one trial to the next, often with their spouses joining them "for medical reasons." In 1978, Florida judge Norman Roettger threw out altogether the wild allegations of one such Treblinka troupe, and called their testimony "coached" and "least credible." One "witness" even picked out a spectator in the audience as the defendant! (Although the judge threw out the case, an appeals court overruled him on a technicality; the defendant, Federenko, was shipped out to the Soviet Union, where he was put on a show-trial at a union hall, and shot.)
In the 1970s, Chicago factory worker Frank Walus was "identified" by a dozen "eye-witnesses" as being a Nazi war criminal. "Chicago Seven" Judge Julius Hoffman willingly swallowed the accusations, and was so biased in the case that he was condemned by the entire Chicago judicial community. Eventually, documentary evidence was discovered which cleared Walus; however the twelve "eyewitnesses" were never prosecuted for perjury.
Despite having discredited themselves at the Fedorenko trial in Florida, the team of Fabulous Treblinka Testifyers was exhibited again at the John Demjanjuk trials in Cleveland (1981) and Jerusalem (1987). Much of their testimony appears to have been lifted from that of the late Jankiel Wiernik who claimed that at Treblinka "500 persons were crowded into a 25 square meter gas chamber" and that the Germans would "tear a child in half, by hand" and that "the bodies of women were used as kindling." (This was not the first time Wiernik's 1944 yarn was re-cycled; at war's end, many of his whacky claims found their way into "Kurt Gerstein's" confessions: the outlandish gas-chamber capacities, the Star of David on the gas-chamber roof, and the impossible visits of Himmler and/or Hitler, for example.)
We should probably be grateful that the Treblinka Testifyers have dropped the original claims for that camp of "steam chambers" (complete with "terra-cotta floors") and "electric current" which were included in Nuremberg document PS-3311, submitted on 19 February 1946 by the American prosecutor on behalf of the Polish government. (Other survivors have claimed "vacuum chambers" at Treblinka: Vassili Grossman, The Black Book New York, 1946.)
Many of the more ludicrous Nuremberg affidavits have been republished in annotated form as Made in Russia: The Holocaust (Liberty Bell Publications). Among the bizarre reports reproduced therein are: a pedal-driven brain-bashing machine (USSR-52, p.16), human soap (USSR-197, p.597), and a gas-chamber at Dachau (2430-PS, p.332).
Nowadays, all of these devices and techniques have disappeared into a kind of Holocaust Black Hole. Since the early 1960s, no serious Holocaust© Expert® has claimed that there were gassings at Dachau (although there are occasional lapses by the less-sophisticated: e.g., Robert Abzug's Inside the Vicious Heart, Oxford University Press 1985, p.133) The "human soap" has been discounted long ago (Deborah Lipstadt, Los Angeles Times, 16 May 1981). And the "steam chambers," "vacuum chambers," and "electrocution chambers" at Treblinka have all now been quietly forgotten, in favor of "fumes from a Soviet tank engine."
We can even detect some moderation in the official claims made about the centerpiece of Holocaust legendry: Auschwitz. Since Auschwitz, Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Majdanek are still intact in many respects, and thus inspectable, Holocaust theologians have had a hard time explaining how come "death camps" had acres upon acres of living accommodations. The first sign of Exterminationist retraction came almost a decade ago, when Gitta Sereny wrote: "Auschwitz despite its emblematic name, was not primarily an extermination camp" (New Statesman, 2 November 1979, p.671). On the witness-stand in Toronto, Professor Raul Hilberg admitted that the "gas chamber" at Auschwitz-1 has been "partially reconstructed after WW2 just for tourists ...and just to show what happened" (Crown vs. Zündel, [Preliminary] 22 June 1984, p.138). In her review of the Auschwitz Museum's traveling exhibit (referred to earlier) Sylvia Rothschild does not mention "gas chambers" once; she instead refers to the constellation of Auschwitz facilities as "labor camps ...a symbol of the horrors, a metaphor for mass murder" (Boston Jewish Advocate, 22 October 1987, p.11).
During the Zündel trial, there were many significant developments. Two prosecution witnesses were wheeled out at the 1984 Preliminary, but were not re-exhibited at the main trial in January-February 1985. Professor John Fried – an "expert witness" was not presented again for "health" reasons; actually because he was such a transparent Marxist. And the original complainant, Mrs. Sabina Citron, was also dropped, with no reason given. (In actual fact, her Preliminary testimony had given more credence to the Revisionists, and in any case, she was in trouble with the law herself; eventually being fined C$5000 for union-busting and sweat-shop activities.)
Even the Survivors who were re-exhibited were an embarrassment to the Crown; in fact, the Prosecution's Appeal Factum makes little reference to the "eye-witnesses" – only to the "Experts." A close study of the transcript shows that the Crown repeatedly tried to head-off the wild allegations of one Arnold Friedman, who several times attempted to discuss his claim that Auschwitz inmates could determine the nationality of the gassees by the color of the smoke. (See: Preliminary, p.206; Main Trial, p.326, p.406, p.407.)
By a curious coincidence, Friedman is (or was) one of those Carpathian-Jewish teenagers who keep popping out of the woodwork, to contradict the photographic, scientific, and forensic evidence. Toronto's Friedman, originally from the Carpathian town of Uzgorod, was in 1944 interned at the brick-factory of nearby Munkacs, before being shipped to Auschwitz-Birkenau, and later to Buchenwald. Carpathian-Jewish teenager Lili Jacob-Meier (now of Florida) was likewise shipped from her village of Bilke, to the Munkacs brick-factory, and then on to Auschwitz-Birkenau, and finally to Buchenwald-Dora (where she "liberated" the famous Auschwitz Album, which completely contradicts her claims of "flaming chimneys"). California's Mel Mermelstein was likewise a Carpathian-Jewish teenager, interned at the Munkacs brick-factory before being shipped to Auschwitz-Birkenau, and then on to Buchenwald. Denver philanthropist Emil Hecht was also a Carpathian-Jewish teenager from the village of Svalvava, who was interned at the Munkacs brick-factory, before being transferred to Auschwitz-Birkenau, and then on to Mauthausen (Denver Post, 19 May 1987, p.D1). Even Holocaust guru Eli Wiesel was a Carpathian-Jewish teenager from Sighet, before being interned at the Munkacs brick-factory, and then trans-shipped to Auschwitz-Birkenau, and on to Buchenwald (along with Mermelstein). Is there something they put in the water up in those Carpathian Mountains, which causes their Jewish teenage inhabitants to have such vivid imaginations?
Of course, the modern "testifyers" have only come to the fore in recent years. During the 1960s and early 1970s we had an earlier batch of "witnesses." Yet, they all contradict one another far more. According to Commandant Höss, the gas was squirted out of hollow pillars (Commandant of Auschwitz, p.188): Auschwitz doctor Nyiszli agrees (Auschwitz, p.45); as does Holocaust© Expert® Reitlinger (Final Solution, p.160) – while Müller implies that Auschwitz did not have perforated pillars, but fake shower-heads (Eyewitness Auschwitz, p.38), and he is supported by Expert® Hilberg (Destruction of the European Jews, p.627).
It is probably appropriate and timely to draw up a list of various allegations concerning the "Holocaust."
hollow pillars p.188 (Höss); diesel exhaust PS-1553 (Gerstein); hollow pillars p.46 (Nyiszli); hollow pillars and fake showers p.60 (Müller); fake showers p.627 (Hilberg); fake showers (Reitlinger). [In fact, there are no "fake showers" at Auschwitz-1 nor "hollow pillars" at Auschwitz-Birkenau; I have been there to check.]
Color of victims after gassing:
none p.188 (Höss); blue PS-1553 (Gerstein); pink with green spots p.627 (Hilberg); blue p.199 (Davidowicz); blue p.46 (Nyiszli).
Victims' hygiene after gassing:
nose bleeds; foam on lips p.627 (Hilberg); covered in fæces, blood, sweat and urine p.199 (Davidowicz); no evidence of excrement or sweat (Höss); "blood spattered" p.160 (Reitlinger); blood, sweat and urine PS-1553 (Gerstein).
Nazis who confessed under torture:
Franz Ziereis: Commandant of Mauthausen. Confessed to gas chambers at Mauthausen. Shot "trying to escape" 22 May 1945.
Rudolf Höss: Commandant of Auschwitz. Confessed to 2.5m gassed at Auschwitz. Whipped by Jewish (British) interrogators. Executed in Poland, 1947.
Hans Fritzsche: Radio Propaganda Minister. Confessed to "aggressive war." Dental drills applied to teeth. Life 20 June 1949 p.92. Sentenced to 10 years. Died in 1953.
Josef Kramer: Various tortures. Confessed to gas chambers at Natzweiler. Bergen-Belsen, Frejafon, Paris, 1947. Hanged December 1945.
Fritz Sauckel: Labor Minister. Threatened with his family being turned over to the Soviets. Confessed to "aggressive war." Hanged 16 October 1946.
Julius Streicher: Publisher. Forced to ingest the saliva and urine of Black American G.I.s. Refused to confess. Hanged 16 October 1946.
Hans Frank: Governor of Poland. Beaten, and urinated upon, by Black American G.I.s. Refused to confess. Hanged 16 October 1946.
[The preceeding article appeared in Liberty Bell Publications of January 1988. It may be copied for non-profit purposes only.]